How to Plant a Walnut Tree?
Precautions to Reduce High Cold and Frost Damage in Walnut Tree
First of all, you should avoid late watering in walnut gardens. That it because, late irrigation will delay the growth of walnut branches even more. Besides, it will be useful to avoid excessive nitrogenous fertilizers and deep pruning. Generally speaking, if a suitable type of walnut is selected for the region, it will not be affected much by the early spring frost because the walnuts are out of resting period late.
Walnut and Irrigation
The walnut tree does not need much water except for the first 2-3 years. If we order the species which are demanding water much, plums, apples, pears, cherries, peaches, apricots, and almonds are respectively. As you can see, walnut is not even included in this order. However, this does not mean that the walnut sapling will be planted and not watered for 3 years. According to the distribution of rainfall in summer, water should be given 2-3 times in order to feed the tree during dry periods. As the soil has sufficient moisture in the spring, the trees grow quickly and have large leaf surfaces. However, if this moisture in the soil is lost later, the growth of the shoots slows down, the top buds form early, and growth ceases after a while. So the soil moisture needs to be well adjusted. Besides this, the tree which does not have moisture can cause the buds that start to form at the end of spring and early summer to remain small. This causes new shoots to remain small in the next spring and even the affected walnut flower buds cannot provide fruit. Because of these effects, it is necessary to keep the irrigation work in the walnut tightly from the beginning.
Irrigation Process and Time in Walnuts
Walnut must be watered carefully and regularly, especially in the first years with being a plant that does not want much water. Rainfall in the spring is generally sufficient but water should be provided as needed. Summer watering is very important. Depending on the rainfall situation, irrigation can be started as of mid-May or the first week of June. If the spring is dry, the water must be started early. Otherwise the fruiting and quality will decrease. The mistake made in the irrigation (inadequate and irregular irrigation) can cause fruit to fall in June. In walnuts, irrigation is very important especially in small fruits, in filling periods and in the periods near to getting bigger. In whichever condition walnut sapling and walnut garden are the ideal way to irrigate is drip irrigation or leakage irrigation.
Impact of Watering on Flower Buds (Fruit Buds)
The water need of the walnut tree should be met at normal level. Irrigation should be done depending on soil structure and general climate conditions. If irrigation is not made for trees, flower buds may never occur due to thirst. In the case of irrigation in excess amount, it is possible to prevent the growth of flower buds by stimulating the growth of shoots in strong growing trees.
The State of Not Giving Sufficient Water for Walnut Growing
If you do not give sufficient water to the walnut garden, the rate of photosynthesis decreases because stomas are closed. As a result, the walnut trees can not feed enough and the fruit quality decreases. Fruit size, colour and yield are adversely affected. Naturally, walnut prices will be negatively affected due to poor quality, and you will have to market your product at lower prices.
Protection from Spring Late Frosts
The most dangerous and most harmful frost type in the walnut garden is late spring frosts. The first thing that can be done to protect against these frosts is forecasting. For this, meteorological data should be considered.
In order to avoid damage to the walnut garden from frost, the process is to prevent the loss of heat in the plant and return the lost heat. In addition, chemical applications (such as plant copper application) made in the autumn or early spring are useful. Sprinkler irrigation again reduces the internal temperature of the plant, thus preventing damage by the frost. But it is necessary to make sprinkling watering until the dawn at the night of frost. Chemically, instead of copper, chemical matter “Frostguard” has produced successful results. Smoke or fogging, as well as heating and sprinkling applications, can also be done to protect from the frost. Saw, car tires, lignite coal or used engine oils can be burned on the ground for heating. When sprinkling is carried out, irrigation continues until the air temperature rises above 0 ° C.
Protection from Autumn Early Frosts
The most basic reason for damaging the first frost of autumn is that the walnut branches cannot be mature enough. To avoid this, it is necessary to avoid excessive and late nitrogen fertilization, late watering and excessive pruning. In addition to these, it is also important to choose the right specie and not to delay the harvest.
Increasing the Amount of Fruit Bud in Walnut Tree
The more fruit buds are in the walnut garden, the more fruits will be produced. If the amount of good nutrition, developmental strength and lightness in the formation of this flower bud is much, the amount of flower will be high. A good pruning is a must for a good exposure to light.
Impact of Shadowing on Flower Buds (Fruit Buds)
In the trees planted in the shade, no flower buds (fruit buds) occur or rarely occur. The same applies to pruning. In the walnut trees not pruned, flower buds form on the outside of the tree because the light intake is there. Flower bud formation is difficult on the inside of the corolla. That is because branches in the inner parts become brittle under the effect of shading, which causes the flower buds to fail to form, the amount of fruit to be reduced and the fruit quality to fall in the products that can be formed.
Pollination – Fertilation in Walnut
It is called pollination in the case of the transfer of the flower dust that is turned on by the explosion of the male specie (anter) to the fountain of the female fountain. Pollination in walnuts occurs with wind, not with insects or bees. Therefore, in the garden creation, the planting of the garden must be carried out with an appropriate plan for the species of walnut pollination. This plan should be based on the prevailing wind direction. However, it is also a method to plant pollinator for the third tree of every third row. However, the size of the land and the dominant wind direction must be taken into account. For complete pollination, the flowering season of main specie and the pollinator season must match each other. The choice of the correct specie for this is extremely important. Pollination and fertilization are often mixed up. Fertilization is the biological activity, such as egg division, which is the result of pollination. It is not right to separate the two completely. Also, for good fertilization, the temperature should be sufficient.
It must be made to determine the type needed by the plant, its amount, and lacking or excessive materials in the soil. For analysis, it is important that the soil samples have different depths, such as 0-30, 30-60, 60-100, 150-180 cm.
Storage Conditions of Walnut Saplings after Delivery
If you will grow walnut saplings within 4-5 days, you can wrap your roots with a wet material and store them in a closed environment. However, if you need to wait longer (up to 2-3 months, but not later than March) they should be buried in cold storage with 0-4oC and 85-90% relative humidity, or indoors or outdoors, such as hangars. If you are going to use cold air depots, you should cover the roots with a material such as disinfected sawdust. If you are going to use burial method, it would be useful to disinfect the roots with a substance such as burgundy mix. In addition, the trenches must be opened in the east-west direction, and the saplings should be buried in a vertical or slightly horizontal manner. If buried in a slightly horizontal manner, the roots will better contact the ground. All of the sapling roots in the burial should be in the soil, there should not be an exposed part of the roots. If the space between the saplings cannot be completely filled with soil, the roots will be damaged from wind and winter cold. For this, the roots should be tightly pressed with the soil and air intake should be prevented. In addition, saplings roots can be damaged at -6, -7 ° C. For this reason, it is useful to keep the saplings in an indoor environment (such as a hangar) where there is no air flow where the winter passes harshly.
Garden Planting Shape (Planting Range)
In recent years, the whole world has been prone to frequent planting in order to be able to grow more trees. Thus, fruit percentage has been high, unit cost has been low and quality production has been possible. For this purpose, walnut saplings such as Chandler and Fernor are planted in flat planting area with 8×8 m, 7×7 m on sloping ground, 8×4 m on flat ground, 7×3.5 meters or 7×4 meters on sloped ground. By frequent planting you can double the number of trees you can plant on the land. But after an average of 15 years, cutting the trees between them and bringing them back to their normal range will be more suitable for fruit quality and quantity. If you have done frequent planting in your walnut garden and do not want to make subtilization in 15 years, you should do a very careful pruning.
Opening of Pits and Sapling Planting
It is better not to use auger when opening the sapling hole. Because the auger compresses the soil and slows root growth, it is more correct to open the pit with an excavator or a digger instead. With a minimum of 60 cm, 1,5-2 m trenches are opened and after that the soil burns well under the sun and mixed with animal burrows, a phosphorus fertilizer and topsoil, it is filled to the level where the sapling root shall be planted. In order to prevent the roots from coming into contact with the direct fertilizer, a little amount of pure soil should be thrown again. Try not to throw a lot of fertilizer (3-4 shovels on average) and try to open it from the pit not in summer if possible. After the planting, the soil should be pressed well and water should be given in order to prevent the roots from getting air. Planting on the ridge is more convenient because it will prevent accumulation of water on the bottom of the trees. In addition, the graft point should be 5 cm above the soil level. It is absolutely necessary to prune walnut saplings before planting. Pruning is made by cutting the damaged part of root is any, separating the overlapping roots, cutting 1-2 cm from the end of the pile root, shortening the length of hairy roots for 1/3, and shortening the sapling height in such a way that it shall be 40 cm from the graft point. The purpose of shortening the walnut sapling is to bring the retention rate to a very high level by providing the first-year root work to the root of the branches and to eliminate the possibility of opening earlier and to bloom later. You can also achieve rapid growth by leaving the strongest one of the first year shoots in short-cut walnut saplings. However, you should take precautions about sunburn when doing so. You can do this by painting the body with white paint and using Kaolin-named coolant.
Fertilization in Walnuts
Fertilization in walnut and other fruit gardens in our country is not considered as much as it is in vegetable or other agricultural products. However, regular and good fertilization is necessary to get plenty of good quality products from the trees and to prolong the fruit life of the walnut tree. There is no fixed program for the fertilization of trees. When determining the type and amount of fertilizer to be used, factors such as soil condition, regional climate, age of the tree and yield status should be taken into consideration. In case of poor growth in walnut trees, the amount of nitrogenous fertilizer should be increased. In addition to this, the tree also needs potassium and phosphorous fertilizers. Nitrogenous fertilizers must be used with caution, not more than absolutely necessary. Excess nitrogen use has a detrimental effect on arid and frost resistance, although it shows the harmful effect more in arid regions. However, even if phosphorus and potassium fertilizers are used excessively, they do not damage since the excess part can be stored in the soil.
It should also be remembered that walnut and other fruit trees need fertilizer during the periods when they give the most fruit.
Why Pruning Made?
Pruning in walnut trees is a method of controlling the structure of the corolla, that is to form a smooth and strong corolla, to prolong the economic life, to improve the quality of the fruit, to provide light penetration and air circulation, to provide good flowering, to remove the damaged parts, and in general meaning, to obtain more income.
Pruning by Time Period
A-) Winter Pruning in Walnut
- Winter Pruning in Walnut
- It is fertility pruning made in resting period.
- Winter pruning contributes waking up the tree. However, heavy winter pruning use the majority of tree energy, encourage excessive physical growth, and reduce fruit growth and development. Therefore, the winter pruning should be made a little lighter.
- Winter pruning should be done towards the end of winter as much as possible, otherwise cold damage may occur. If the trees are young, they will suffer more damage from early pruning.
- Trees are shaped.
B-) Summer Pruning in Walnut
- It is also called green pruning. It is the pruning to complete or correct the winter pruning and to increase exposure to light.
- It is especially important to be done during the shaping years. The main purpose is to regulate vegetative development.
- If the physical development is excessive, it is necessary to apply summer pruning.
- Summer pruning can be done to make it easier to cure the shoot. It should not be made after August 15th. This will reduce the damage of the tree from the winter cold. However, it is not allowed to wake up again after the shortening.
- If there are areas in the corolla which are frequent in May-June, dilution will be beneficial when the shoots are newly formed. However, pruning should be done when the length of the shoot reaches 8-10 cm. This is the early pruning; the actual pruning should be done after the 15th of August.
- Steep and strong growing shoots should be cut and only dilution cuts should be made.
- The actual pruning should be done like the 15th of August to avoid any winter damage that may occur.
- With summer pruning, more sunlight is provided to the fruit and fruit quality and size increase is observed.
- Trees that are closed off by summer pruning are controlled, and control is provided if the trees pass through their allocated areas.
- Cutting should be done from the middle part of the tree to increase light exposure. The point to be noted in the shortening of branches is that they should not be cut in the case of a 30 cm or smaller shoot, cut in thicker branches from the pencil, and shortening should be one third of the length of the branch.
Formation Pruning in Walnuts
In foreign walnut species such as Chandler, Fernor, Pedro, Serr, Payne, Chico, Sundland, Amigo, Tehema, Tulare, Trinta with fertile side branches, goble treatment with top branch must be applied. Goble consist of three main branches. There is one top branch in the middle of three main branch in goble with top branch. The three mentioned main branches should have an angle with the body of 45o – 600 and the strength of growth should be almost the same. Starting from the 2nd year, the support branches are selected for main branches, but these branches should be in development that cannot compete with the main branches. In the second year of the walnut garden, two branches are selected for 3 main branches. For the top branch, a branch is selected to provide the continuation of it. This process is done again in the following years. Another point to note is that the walnut tree is crowned at a distance of 1.20 m to 1.50 m.
The Points to Note in Yield Pruning of Walnut Trees
- It is made every year since the year when the walnut trees begin to lay fruit.
- It includes winter and summer pruning together.
- Yield pruning has the purpose of preserving this shape after the walnut tree has been settled in a certain shape (shape pruning) and the balance has been established.
- As the trees age, the yield pruning is done more intensely. Twisted and bent branches should be removed.
- If there are walnut branches on top of each other, these must be removed, and those that are too long between side branches should be shortened.
- If nakedness is seen in the main or side branches they are cut short and new branches are formed in the empty spaces.
- Older branches should be cut and renewed.
- Dry, diseased, intruded and weak branches should be cut off.
- In walnut trees, if there is a lot of fruit branches on a main or side branch, those with good light exposure remains.
- Do not twist or bend the branch. But branches can be used as a tie.
- If branches are tilted due to fruit weight, they can be corrected by tying with other branches.
- Pruning must be done in the form of cutting a certain part of the yearly shoots because fruit is formed in top buds in the old kinds of walnut, that is, native walnut trees. However, in walnut species with high side branch yield, cutting of 1/4 – 1/5 of yearly shoot may be cut.
- The branch should not be cut too close or far away while the branch is cut, it should be cut in the middle. The cutting angle should not be too steep or too flat and should be cut at about 300 – 450 The purpose of cutting at these angles is to let water drops on the branches slide after the rain.
AS GÜNEŞ NURSERY, WE HAVE BEEN PRODUCING ONLY WALNUT SAPLINGS IN THE SECTOR FOR 30 YEARS. NATURALLY, OUR EXPERTISE IN THIS AREA IS REGISTERED. ALL OUR PRODUCTION CONSISTS OF THE SPECIES OF CHANDLER, FERNOR, FERNETTE, FRANQUETTE, AND RONDE DE MONTIGNAC. HOWEVER, IN DIRECTION OF THE DEMANDS OF OUR CUSTOMERS, WE HAVE INFRASTRUCTURE TO BE ABLE TO PRODUCE HOWARD, TULARE, LARA, AND CISCO SPECIES…